The universe is about 13.8 billion years old, but how do we know?
Scattered across the void of space are stars, galaxies, stellar remnants, and other objects billions and billions of years old. So far, the universe has existed for approximately 13.8 billion years. How do we know this?
Scientists said It is possible to determine the age of the universe by analyzing light and types of radiation others travel from deep space, but they do not always agree on the age of the universe and continue to seek more precise answers after each improvement in space observing telescopes.
By analyzing light, we can know the age of the universe.
By analyzing light, we can know the age of the universe. (Photo: NASA).
In the 1920s, astronomer Edwin Hubble found a way to determine the relationship between the distance of an object, based on the time it takes for light to travel from that object to Earth, and the speed at which that object light leaves Earth, based on how much light there is from distant locations red shift. (Redshift is the phenomenon in which light emitted by objects moving away from the observer becomes redder).
This number is now called Hubble constant, describes the expansion of the universe to different places. According to the US Space Agency, the Hubble constant is higher for more distant objects and vice versa. This shows that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, but it makes calculating the age of the universe even more difficult.
Currently, many scientists estimate that the universe is 13.8 billion years old. They based this figure on calculations made in 2020 after reassessing data provided by the European Space Agency’s Planck spacecraft and analyzing data collected by the Atacama Observatory in Chile.
According to this calculation, the universe is about 100 million years older than the previous calculation based on data provided by the Planck space probe in 2013. Both the Planck space probe and the Atacama Observatory have Mapping the cosmic microwave background (CMB)that is to say the light left by the Big Bang.
By combining this data with existing models of how quickly different types of matter and celestial bodies appeared after it all began, scientists can estimate how long it took for the explosion that gave rise to the universe happens.
According to scientists, light from the CMB appeared about 400,000 years after the Big Bang. The universe begins at tPlasmain which photons, or light, are attached to electrons.
Eventually, the universe cooled enough that photons separated from electrons, left the core, and scattered into space, forming CMB. So, by measuring how far away these scattered lights are, scientists can estimate the age of the universe.
The number 13.8 billion years was given by a group of scientists from the Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Flatiron Institute, New York, USA, in 2020. The research team re-examined the CMB with a telescope at the Atacama Observatory.
Lead researcher Dr Simone Aiola said that although the Atacama maps cover a smaller area than the Planck maps, the higher resolution allows precise measurements to be made.
Dr Aiola and his colleagues made a breakthrough by observing the CMB at the smallest scale ever seen. Thanks to this, they can see many details and anomalies that tell us what happened in the early universe and when. By comparing these highly accurate maps with predictions about the age of the universe, the team calculated that the age of the universe was 13.8 billion years.
Could the universe be even “older” than that? Maybe! As telescopes become more advanced and modern, they also have the ability to look further into the past than we can imagine, and find something that changes everything we thought.
Article source: Dan Tri
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The universe is about 13.8 billion years old, but how do we know? Scattered in the void of space are stars, galaxies, remnants…