The prize was awarded to three scientists James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz for two studies on cosmology and exoplanets.
Three scientists have won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics. Photo: Twitter.
The Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics to scientists James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz on October 8 at 4:55 p.m. (Hanoi time). Three scientists will share a bonus worth more than $900,000 for two research projects considered to “contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the universe.”
Researcher James Peebles laid the theoretical foundations of cosmology, and Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz discovered exoplanets orbiting Sun-like stars.
James Peebles of Princeton University (USA) conducts extensive research on the universe and billions of galaxies and galaxy clusters. His work improved understanding of the structure and history of the universe, laying the foundation for the last 50 years of cosmology. The Big Bang model describes the process of the universe’s evolution over nearly 14 billion years, from a hot, dense sphere to the vast, cold, ever-expanding universe that it is today.
Nearly 400,000 years after the Big Bang, the dark universe gradually became transparent, allowing light to travel through space. Today, the residual radiation remains in the form of the cosmic microwave background and preserves much information about the beginnings of the universe.
Using theoretical and computational tools, Peebles deciphered the traces left by the beginning of the universe and discovered many new processes. He discovered that we only know about 5% of the visible universe in terms of stars, planets and humans. The remaining 95% is dark energy and dark matter, as physicists call it. Dark energy is the force driving the expansion of the universe, while invisible dark matter appears to float around galaxies, detectable only by gravitational attraction.
Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the University of Geneva (Switzerland) are exploring the regions surrounding the solar system in the Milky Way. In October 1995, they discovered a gas giant planet orbiting the star 51 Pegasi, 50 light years from Earth. Using specialist equipment, they observed the Jupiter-like planet 51 Pegasi b from the Haute-Provence Observatory in southern France. It is the first exoplanet discovered around a main sequence star, the type of star that fuses hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms at the core. Main sequence stars, including the Sun, are the most common type of star in the universe.
Their discovery marked the start of a revolution in astronomy. Since then, more than 4,000 exoplanets of varying sizes, shapes and orbits have been discovered in the Milky Way.
Since Alfred Nobel established the prize, 112 Nobel Prizes in Physics have been awarded to 209 scientists. John Bardeen is the only researcher to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972. The prize is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to researchers Arthur Ashkin (United States), Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland (Canada) for their groundbreaking discoveries in the field of laser physics. Strickland, of the University of Waterloo, Ontario, became the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in physics since Maria Goeppert Mayer received the honor in 1963. She was the third woman in history to win the prize Nobel Prize in Physics.
The Nobel is an international prize established by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm in 1901 based on the assets of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor and businessman.
The prize is awarded annually to individuals and organizations who have made outstanding contributions in the fields of medicine, chemistry, physics, literature and peace.
In 1968, the Central Bank of Sweden established the Swedish Bank Prize for Economic Sciences in Nobel Memory, also known as the Nobel Prize in Economics. Each award includes a medal, a personal certificate and a bonus. From 1901 to 2017, the prize has been awarded 585 times to 923 individuals and organizations around the world.