A supernova is an explosion of enormous energy and luminosity that eclipses entire galaxies containing several hundred billion stars..
Astronomers Walter Baade and Fritz Zwick coined the name supernova to describe the remnants of a neutron star in 1933, according to popular mechanic. Before that, astronomers called every ancient object exploding in the skyto “nova”, which means “new” in Latin. supernova explosion divided into two main groups with completely different conditions and mutual promotion mechanisms. The first is a Type II supernova that specializes in core collapse. They occur as the massive star nears the end of its life cycle.
Simulation of the brightest SN2016aps supernova explosion in a galaxy 4.6 billion years from Earth
Simulation of the brightest SN2016aps supernova explosion in a galaxy 4.6 billion light-years from Earth. (Photo: iЅtock)
Every star in the universe merges with its constituent element throughout its lifetime, from the smallest star that is only one-tenth the mass of the Sun to a star 100 times the mass of the Sun. They fuse hydrogen atoms into helium for most of their existence. Sun-like stars can last about 10 billion years before entering their final cycle and turning into a red giant. But the most massive stars, whose gravity is exerted on their core, will exhaust their reserves of hydrogen in only a few million years.
After running out of hydrogen, the giant star begins to fuse helium into carbon and oxygen, then into silicon and magnesium. Ultimately, this creates a sphere of nickel and iron at the core. Just before the moment of his death, the star was like a bloated monster. Its outermost layers of atmosphere separate completely. The interior of the star resembles an onion with an iron core surrounded by layers of lighter elements.
Each stage of the star’s life cycle is shorter than the previous one. The star has spent millions of years quietly burning its hydrogen and less than a million years fusing helium. It can sustain carbon fusion for 1,000 years. The product of the reaction with the iron in the heart takes a total of 15 minutes. All stars whose mass is between 8 and 200 times that of the Sun undergo the same process.
Reacting with iron produces no energy. Instead, the reaction expends energy to fuse the iron into a heavier element. The rest of the star continues to collapse into the core, but none of the energy released by the fusion reaction equalizes. The entire mass of the star presses so hard on the nucleus that the iron atom rearranges itself, the electrons move inside the proton, turning the entire mass of iron into a giant ball of neutrons.
Until the ball of neutrons can no longer sustain compression, all of the star’s remaining matter hits it and bounces off, triggering a supernova explosion. In less than a second, the entire star explodes from the inside out, sending shock waves through its own matter at speeds near the speed of light. The radiation that accompanies the explosion carries tremendous energy. For example, the star Betelgeuse, located nearly 650 light-years from Earth, will experience a supernova explosion within the next million years. Then it will be bright enough to see during the day, brighter than a full moon.
Fortunately, the Earth is not close to giant stars whose outer atmosphere is less stable. The radiation and particles emitted from the supernova explosion that would crash into the nucleus would tear everything to pieces within a radius of 100 light years.
One type is just as deadly. This type of explosion does not come from a lone star waiting to die, but from a cannibal affair. Most stars in the universe exist in pairs. Members of a binary star system never have the same mass. ƬIn fact, they often have a differential mass. They will go through cycles at different rates, with the heaviest star dying first. If the star had about the same mass as the Sun, it would leave behind a white dwarf, a solid core containing unfused carbon and oxygen.
Sometimes the star in the same system goes into the red dwarf stage. Part of its atmosphere spills over the surface of the white dwarf. When this density reaches a critical threshold, the fusion reaction with hydrogen releases a type of eruption called a regular nova.
But when the conditions are right, the red giant continuously pours its own atmosphere onto the surface of the white dwarf, causing a slow increase in pressure and temperature. The thick hydrogen atmosphere triggers a fusion reaction that releases all the energy at once. The explosion shocked the white dwarf, forcing carbon and oxygen to undergo uncontrollable fusion.
Supernovas are the largest atomic bombs in the universe, an object the size of Earth but more massive than the Sun, turning all of its mass into a nuclear fireball. When it occurs, a supernova explosion is brighter than the galaxy, which contains several hundred billion stars. However, the light show does not last forever. Within weeks, the supernova fades and fades, leaving only remnants floating in interstellar space.
Each galaxy like the Milky Way experiences only a few supernova explosions per century, about a third of which are type 1ɑ. If this happened too close to Earth, radiation and shock waves from the supernova would obliterate the planet’s atmosphere.
Article source: VnExpress
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A supernova is an explosion of enormous energy and luminosity that eclipses entire galaxies containing several hundred billion stars. Astronomers Walter Baade and Fritz…