Every supernova, every merger between neutron stars or black holes, even isolated neutron stars, can cause gravitational waves to hum.
The rapid expansion of space after the big bang 13.8 billion years ago also created a series of gravitational waves accompanied by a buzzing sound.
Like a stone thrown into a pond, these massive events cause ripples that reverberate through the very fabric of space-time.
Collectively, this mixture of signals combines to form a random hum called Gravitational wave background.
The illustration shows gravitational waves released during the merger of two supermassive black holes.
The illustration shows gravitational waves released during the merger of two supermassive black holes – (Photo: NASA).
New frontiers in space exploration
It is believed that discovering the background of gravitational waves will expand our understanding of the universe and its evolution.
Theoretical physicist Susan Scott of the Australian National University explains: “Detecting the stochastic gravitational radiation background could provide a wealth of information about astrophysical source processes in the early universe that are inaccessible by any other means.”
The first ray of light exploded into space approximately 380,000 years after the Big Bang. As the universe expanded and grew over the next billion years, this light was drawn into every corner. He is still around us today.
It is The first gravitational wave background in the universe (the cosmic microwave background – CMB).
The buzz outside of the incident exploded
In 2015, the first detection of gravitational waves was announced. The collision of two black holes about 1.4 billion years ago created ripples that spread at the speed of light.
These expansions and contractions of space-time created a tool that scientists at the Australian National University have been designing and improving for decades. This tool is Gravitational wave interferometer.
Until now LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected nearly 100 gravitational wave events – events strong enough to create buzzing signals.
These interferometers use laser beams to illuminate special tunnels several kilometers long. These lasers are affected by the stretching and compression of space-time created by gravitational waves, creating an interference pattern from which scientists can infer the properties of small objects.
The ground-based gravitational wave detectors LIGO and Virgo detected the hum of gravitational waves emitted by dozens of individual black hole pair mergers.
Scientists believe the detectable buzz from each burst lasts only a fraction of a second.
These individual, random signals may be too small to detect, but will combine to create static noise. Astrophysicists compare it to the buzz of popcorn.
These interferometers are currently under maintenance at KAGRA in Japan, in a new observation period and preparing to join the third observatory in March 2023. This collaboration will detect hums coming from space.
However, these are not the only tools detecting gravitational waves. Another instrument will be able to detect other sources of gravitational wave background, which are Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA)scheduled for launch in 2037.
Article source: Tuoi Tre
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Each supernova, each merger between neutron stars or black holes, even an isolated neutron star, can cause a source of powerful gravitational waves…